Be kind, resourceful, beautiful, friendly, have initiative, have a sense of humor, tell right from wrong, make mistakes, fall in love, enjoy strawberries and cream, make someone fall in love with it, learn from experience, use words properly, be the subject of its own thought, have as much diversity of behaviour as a man, do something really new.
Turing argues that these objections are often based on naive assumptions about the versatility of machines or are "disguised forms of the argument from consciousness". Writing a program that exhibits one of these behaviors "will not make much of an impression. If "emotions" are defined only in terms of their effect on behavior or on how they function inside an organism, then emotions can be viewed as a mechanism that an intelligent agent uses to maximize the utility of its actions.
Given this definition of emotion, Hans Moravec believes that "robots in general will be quite emotional about being nice people". Empathy is a necessary component of good human computer interaction. He says robots "will try to please you in an apparently selfless manner because it will get a thrill out of this positive reinforcement. You can interpret this as a kind of love. However, emotions can also be defined in terms of their subjective quality, of what it feels like to have an emotion.
The question of whether the machine actually feels an emotion, or whether it merely acts as if it is feeling an emotion is the philosophical question, "can a machine be conscious?
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Turing strips away all other properties of human beings and reduces the question to "can a machine be the subject of its own thought? Viewed in this way, a program can be written that can report on its own internal states, such as a debugger. Turing reduces this to the question of whether a machine can "take us by surprise" and argues that this is obviously true, as any programmer can attest. Douglas Lenat 's Automated Mathematician , as one example, combined ideas to discover new mathematical truths.
Kaplan and Haenlein suggest that machines can display scientific creativity, while it seems likely that humans will have the upper hand where artistic creativity is concerned. In , scientists at Aberystwyth University in Wales and the U. K's University of Cambridge designed a robot called Adam that they believe to be the first machine to independently come up with new scientific findings.
This question like many others in the philosophy of artificial intelligence can be presented in two forms.
Or it can be defined in terms of intent: can a machine "deliberately" set out to do harm? The latter is the question "can a machine have conscious states? The question of whether highly intelligent and completely autonomous machines would be dangerous has been examined in detail by futurists such as the Singularity Institute. The obvious element of drama has also made the subject popular in science fiction , which has considered many differently possible scenarios where intelligent machines pose a threat to mankind. One issue is that machines may acquire the autonomy and intelligence required to be dangerous very quickly.
Vernor Vinge has suggested that over just a few years, computers will suddenly become thousands or millions of times more intelligent than humans. He calls this " the Singularity. In , academics and technical experts attended a conference to discuss the potential impact of robots and computers and the impact of the hypothetical possibility that they could become self-sufficient and able to make their own decisions.
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They discussed the possibility and the extent to which computers and robots might be able to acquire any level of autonomy, and to what degree they could use such abilities to possibly pose any threat or hazard. They noted that some machines have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons.
They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence.
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Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions. The President of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence has commissioned a study to look at this issue. Some have suggested a need to build " Friendly AI ", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane.
Finally, those who believe in the existence of a soul may argue that "Thinking is a function of man's immortal soul. He writes. In attempting to construct such machines we should not be irreverently usurping His power of creating souls, any more than we are in the procreation of children: rather we are, in either case, instruments of His will providing mansions for the souls that He creates. In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , some philosophers argue that the role of philosophy in AI is underappreciated.
The main bibliography on the subject, with several sub-sections, is on PhilPapers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Ethics of artificial intelligence. Main article: Turing test. Main article: Artificial brain. Main article: Physical symbol system. Main article: Dreyfus' critique of artificial intelligence. Main article: Chinese room. Main article: computational theory of mind.
Main article: ethics of artificial intelligence. Philosophy portal Psychology portal Science portal. AI takeover Artificial brain Artificial consciousness Artificial intelligence Brain other matters section Chatterbot Chinese room Computational theory of mind Computing Machinery and Intelligence Dreyfus' critique of artificial intelligence Existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence Functionalism Multi-agent system Philosophy of computer science Philosophy of information Philosophy of mind Physical symbol system Simulated reality Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies Synthetic intelligence.https://hiagradopem.gq
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Retrieved Fearn , p. Turing , Haugeland , pp. This assertion was printed in the program for the Dartmouth Conference of , widely considered the "birth of AI. Searle's original formulation was "The appropriately programmed computer really is a mind, in the sense that computers given the right programs can be literally said to understand and have other cognitive states. For an in-depth treatment of the role of the thermostat in philosophy see Chalmers , pp. Is Experience Ubiquitous? Archived from the original on John Searle writes: "Could a man made machine think?
Assuming it possible produce artificially a machine with a nervous system, Could a digital computer think? If by 'digital computer' you mean anything at all that has a level of description where it can be correctly described as the instantiation of a computer program, then again the answer is, of course, yes, since we are the instantiations of any number of computer programs, and we can think. Oxford University Press: He recognized that this was only a conjecture, since one could never disprove b. Yet he considered the disjunctive conclusion to be a "certain fact".
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 27 April Russell ; Peter Norvig Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 3rd ed. An introduction to the philosophy of mathematics. Cambridge University Press , From 2. Artificial Intelligence , , Cognitive Science.
The answer is, obvious, yes. We are precisely such machines.
The Systems Reply Berkeley ", Crevier , p. The Robot Reply Yale ". Cole , 4. The Other Minds Reply", Cole , 4. Turing makes this reply under " 4 The Argument from Consciousness.
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